Address: Yen Na Commune, Tuong Duong District Start Time: 16/12/2019 Author: admin
  1. INTRODUCTION

The Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) model has existed for a long time in ethnic minority communities in remote areas in Vietnam (Vien 2014). However, this model has recently been officially recognised thanks to the amended land law 2003 and Forest Protection and Development Law 2004 (Tinh & Nghi 2014).These legal documents allow allocation of land and forest to local communities. In addition, the CBFM model has been tested and developed by various projects (Wode & Bao Huy 2009).

To support the development and upscaling of the CBFM model, the Vietnam Forests and Deltas programme, which is funded by USAID, has developed technical guidance on the development and implementation of the CBFM model.This document is designed for project staff and local staff, i.e. those that directly support the development of the CBFM model. It is a reference source; the application in practice can be adjusted depending on the traditional culture, customs and the other conditions in each location.

This is the first draft of this technical guidance document. This draft must be further developed, finalised and shared with stakeholders to effectively implement the CBFM model.

This draft has four main parts:

Part 1: Related concepts. This part clarifies concepts related to the CBFM model.

Part 2: Related legal documents. This part analyses related legal documents and the role of these documents in terms of CBFM model development.

Part 3: Development process of the CBFM model. This part explains why we should use the CBFM model, the goals of this model, and the principles and processes that should be employed to develop, implement, monitor and evaluate ghd CBFM model. This is the most important part of this technical guidance document.

Part 4: Appendix. This part provides detail guidelines on how to use the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools during the CBFM model development period. This part also introduces a reference example of the CBFM model in use in Ban Ve village, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province. Note that this is not a sample document, this includes examples to which users can refer. The application must be adapted to best suit the traditional culture, customs and other condition in each location.

  1. RELATED CONCEPTS
  • Community: There are many different concepts of community, however, in the CBFM model, community is defined as: “A small group of people living in close proximity to each other who have relationships in work and life and who share a similar culture, societal values and customs and often has spatial frontier in a village”.

 

Based on this definition, “community” is limited to a village community. This aligns with the definitions from the Food and Agriculture ( local people living in the same one village)Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the forest protection and development law 2004. According to FAO’s concept (2000), community in CBFM terms is limited to “a group of individuals in a forestry village, living closely through production, domestic and culture activities”. Article 3 of the forest protection and development law 2004 defined a village community as “all households and individuals living in the same village”.

  • Community forestry: According to FAO (1999), “Community forestry includes any situation which involves local people in a forestry activity.”

 

Therefore, community forestry is formed to create a CBFM procedure: it aims to identify measures to effectively manage forests and contributes to improve livelihood through forestry activities.

  • Community forest: Community forest is forest which is managed, protected, developed and used long-term for forestry purposes by the community. There are three types of community forest:
  1. Forest and land that is used for forestry purposes and has been allocated to the community by competent departments to manage and use in the long-term (with certificate of use, referred to as allocation)
  2. Forest and land that is managed by the community but has not been allocated by the government (there is no legal documentation) including sacred forests and forests providing wood to the community.
  3. Forest and land that is used for forestry purposes by state agencies (forest enterprises and special-use and protected forest management boards) but has contracted the community to protect, regenerate and replant under a long-term forest contract (referred to as a contract).
  • Forest community management: Village communities manage forests owned or under the general use of the community. This agreement is formed mainly through land and forest allocation policies within the village community. This type of management includes the following: 1) Direct management of their old forests or trees( they have been managing their forest areas for long time ago); 2) Direct management of forests that have been allocated by government; 3) Forestry activities that have been organised by the community to serve the community.
  • Community based forest management: A community manages forests which are not under the management, use and general property of the community but are under the management, use or property of state institutions or other economic stakeholders and directly relate to the life, work, product harvesting or income of the community or provide other benefits to the community.
  • According to the above definitions, forest community management refers to community forests that means the forest area belong to a village ( explained as bellows)
  • The convention on forest protection and development: Rules on the rights and obligations of all community members regarding forest protection and development, exploitation, sales and transportation of wood and forestry products, support among members of the community in protection and development of forest community.

 

  1. RELATED LEGAL DOCUMENTS

CBFM relates closely to land and forest use rights, therefore the CBFM model can only be implemented based on the legal framework and appropriate supporting policy. In Vietnam, although the CBFM model has existed for a long time with the government’s respect, it was not recognised officially until the late 1990s (Tinh & Nghi 2012). The process of transition from a focused forestry management model to a privatisation model on forest management took place between 1980 and 1990 and, along with the arrival of the following legal documents, has supported the development of the CBFM:

  • Land law 2003 and amended land law 2013 ( there are two land laws ) set resident community ( local people living together in a village) who are allocated land or approved land use rights by the government. Article 136, amended land law 2013 set on allocation protection forest land for resident community.
  • Decree 181/2004/ND-CP issued regulations on the implementation of land law 2003, in which it clearly stated the legal obligations of the resident community who are allocated and lease land; and regulations on land allocation, land lease, transfer land use purpose, recoveryof the resident community. Item 5, article 72, decree 181/2004/ND-CP detailed forest protection land allocation for resident community in terms of protection and development.
  • Article 29 and 30 of the forest protection and development law 2004 defined forest allocation for the resident community and rights and obligations of the resident community.
  • Decree No.23/2006/ND-CP issued regulations on implementing forest protection and development measures. This included regulations on allocation of forests, forest for rent, withdrawing forests, forest allocation, forest management, forest protection and development and forest use by the resident community.
  • Vietnam’s forestry development strategy 2006 – 2020, emphasised the importance of the resident community in ensuring sustainable protection and development of forests.
  • To sum up, these legal documents cover the following important issues:
  • Approval rights to allocate land and forests, and the long-term forest allocation contract with resident communities that meet the legislation and policy in force.. The forest land users have rights as land law and forest protection and development law
  • Approve resident community is forest owners( There are some forest areas belongs to community, the community has a red book like other organizations or households) , forest users with sufficient legal people or not depending on every community’s status and forest users who are allocated or contracted forests.
    • The resident community receives rights and obligations when managing forest as per government legislation.
  • Resident communities who are allocated or contracted forests have an obligation to develop forest protection and development conventions, and must form a forest protection and development team based on the government’s legislation. This must be submitted to the local government to get approval and for implementation.

 

  1. PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE CBFM MODEL

4.1. Why apply CBFM

CBFM helps to strengthen the participation of resident communities in forest protection and development. The CBFM model has the following advantages:

  • Strengthening the sustainability of forest resource management due to increased awareness of forest protection and development. To manage natural resources sustainably depends not only on natural conditions, but also the traditional customs of the community who are using that resource. If the community over exploits, the natural ecosystem will be disrupted and natural resources will be depleted. Moreover, the local resident community takes more responsibility for their own decisions and solutions if they directly conduct forest protection and development activities.
  • Mobilising local resources for forest protection and development activities, especially local knowledge sources i.e. local community members who clearly understand the local forest ecosystem and are able to find solutions for the problems based on the level of awareness and traditional custom of the locals.
  • Strengthening local democracy, thereby better mobilising political support and improving the community’s belief in the authorities.
  • Combining the Community Based Forest management and livelihoods  imorovement for the local community, especially poor people in remote areas who lives depend on the forests. Resident communities that participate in the CBFM model will benefit from investment resulting from allocated and exploited forest area as well as the results of using forest products and other benefits from forests based on legal provisions.
  • Reducing the gap between wealth and poverty in communities that own and benefit from forest resources.
  • Raising awareness and improving the management capacity of local resident communities through management, protection and development activities.

4.2. Goals of the CBFM model

  • Improve appreciation of the need to protect and manage natural resources.
  • Enhance the participation of local people in terms of using natural resources in partnership with other stakeholders.
  • Improve livelihoods through activities that create income for locals.

4.3. principles of the CBFM model

The CBFM model must be designed in accordance with:

  • legal provisions, economic-social development plans, land use plans, and local forest protection and development plans
  • economic-social condition of local and capacity of community.

The model must also:

  • Respect the needs of the community to access and use the forest resources based on the forests resources and not only focus on prohibiting the exploitation of forest products
  • Ensure the participation of community members in the process of development, implementation and monitoring, and evaluation of the model. Mobilise participation of vulnerable groups in the resident community, such as women, the poor, ethnic minorities, people with disability and other groups
  • Regularly monitor, evaluate and gather experience to build the model successfully
  • Share the success and experience wtih related stakeholders to encourage the adoption and replication of the model on large scale.

4.4. Steps to developing the CBFM model

 

Process Contents
Step 1: Set up a group to develop the CBFM model –       Estimate relevant stakeholders

–       Discuss setting up the group with stakeholders

–       Meet to set up the working group

Step 2: Identify participating villages –  Make list of villages that might participate in the model

–  Meet to discuss and unify the criteria to select villages

–       Evaluate and select villages

–       Make final list of villages that will participate in the model

Step 3: Approach community

 

–       Work with local government to encourage locals  to develop the model

–       Meet to discuss collection of basic information from the resident community

–       Collect information

Step 4: Organise CBFM training – Organise CBFM training
Step 5: Set up forest management board at village level and groups of households protecting forests (GHPF); and develop CBFM convention

There are two groups, the first group to manage all village( there are around 5 Members like leader group), the second group of households

–       Meet to discuss and agree on  Setting  up a forest management board at village level; forest protection household groups; CBFM conventions

–       Document the convention for CPC’s approval

–       Issue the convention

CPC is Commune People Committee

 

Step 6: CBFM planning

 

–       Review forest, forest resources, forest protection and development status report

–       Meet to discuss CBFM plan and monitoring

Step 7: Implement and monitor, evaluate CBFM plan

 

–       Implement activities following the plan

–       Organise 6-monthly meetings to evaluate the CBFM model

–       Share results of CBFM model development with relevant stakeholder.

 

Step 1: Set up a group to develop the CBFM model

Goal:

  • Set up group to develop the CBFM model with clear regulations and tasks.

Expected outputs:

  • The group is established.

Activities:

  • Project staff agree list of relevant stakeholders to join the group. It is expected that the group will include representatives from the following: 1) Project; 2) DARD; 3) DONRE; 4) FPD; 5) DPC; 6) CPC; 7) forest protection management board; 8) locals.
  • Project staff meet relevant stakeholders to discuss setting up the group.
  • Meeting is organised to establish the group, develop regulations and agree the responsibilities of each stakeholder.

Method/tool:

  • Group discussion.

 

Step 2: Identify participating villages

Goal:

  • Determine villages that will participate in the model.

Expected output:

  • List of villages participating in the model.

Activities:

– Project staff collect information and list villages that could participate in the CBFM model.

– Group meets to discuss and unify the criteria for village selection and to evaluate and select villages participating in the model based on the criteria agreed.

– Group makes final list of villages.

Methods/tools:

– Group discussion.

– Ranking.

Attached appendix:

– Appendix 1: Guidance on ranking.

 

Step 3: Approach community

Objectives:

– Gain commitment to the model from local government and locals

– Collect basic information required for making the plan.

Expected outputs:

  • Minutes on working with local government and locals on developing the model.
  • Minutes on working with local government and locals on forest protection and development status.

Activities:

– Project staff work with local government and locals promoting model development. The staff define benefits, objectives, implementing process and role of stakeholders.

– Secondary information is collected to prepare for model development. The information that needs to be collected includes: commune administrative map; land and forest land use plan; land and forest land allocation plan; and community socio-economic development plan.

– Community meeting is organised to collect basic information including:

  • forest protection and management map at commune level
  • list of local forest products, including wood products and non-timber forest products (NTFPs)
  • village development history that defines critical times related to forest protection and development activities. Focusing on performances, difficulties and challenges of each period and solutions to overcome those. This is necessary information for CBFM planning
  • list of stakeholders participating in the model and their roles
  • list of  stakeholders that are expected to join the village project management board (VPMB).

– Project staff use all the collected information to continue to the next step of the plan.

Methods/tools:

  • Collect and analyse secondary information.
  • Group discussion.
  • Develop Venn map.
  • Village mapping.
  • Village history.
  • Transect walk. Field trip to the forest areas

Attached appendix:

– Appendix 2: Guidance on drawing village map.

– Appendix 3: Forest protection and management map of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 4: List of forest products of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 5: Guidance on discussion of village history.

– Appendix 6: History of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 7: Guidance on developing Venn map.

– Appendix 8: Venn map for Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 9: Guidance on surveying the village.

 

Step 4: Organise CBFM training

Objectives:

– Provide knowledge and skills and share experience on developing the CBFM model for staff and locals.

Expected outputs:

At the end of the training course, trainees should be able to:

– Explain the CBFM concept and the model’s development process.

– Apply participatory methods to the CBFM development process.

– Contribute to enhanced awareness and change approaches in managing forest resources toward stimulating participation of locals in protecting and managing forest.

Activities:

Organize CBFM training course with participants from the following stakeholder groups:

– Protection forest management board (PFMB)

– Forest protection branch at district level

– Agricultural and rural development division

– Commune people’s committee

– Local representatives.

Training contents:

– General introduce to the CBFM model.

– Development process of the CBFM model at village level.

– Experiences in developing the CBFM model.

– Participatory approaches and monitoring skills while working with locals during the model development process.

Methods/tools:

–  Participatory training method.

Step 5: Set up forest management board at village level and groups of households protecting forests (GHPF); and develop CBFM convention

Objectives:

– Establish FMU and GHPF at village level with a clear operating mechanism.

– Stakeholders agree CBFM convention and get PPC ( Provincial People Committee)approval.

Expected outputs:

– Operating mechanism and structure of FMU.

– Operating mechanism and list of GHPF members.

– CBFM convention.

Activities:

– Community meeting to:

1) Establish GHPF:

  • GHPF mechanism: functions, missions.
  • Unify criteria and vote for GHPF members.

2) Establish FMU at village level:

  • FMU mechanism: functions, missions of the unit, members, roles and rights of each member.
  • Unify criteria and vote for FMU members.
  • Operating mechanism of FMU: operating rules, plans and budgets for FMU activities;

3) CBFM convention:

  • Forest protection activities.
  • Forest development activities.
  • Other related contents.

– FMU proposes CPC approval.

– Share contents of CBFM convention to locals through local meetings and presentations.

Methods/tools:

– Group discussion.

Attached appendix:

– Appendix 10: CBFM operating map at village level.

– Appendix 11: Criteria to select members for FMU in Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 12: Functions and missions of FMU in Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 13: Functions and missions of forest protection group in Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 14: Regulations of forest protection and management activities in Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 15: Convention on CBFM in Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

Step 6: CBFM planning

Objectives:

– Complete CBFM action plan and monitoring and evaluating plan.

Expected outputs:

– CBFM plan.

– Sustainable livelihood development plan combined with forest protection and development.There is a plan on this

– CBFM monitoring and evaluating plan.

– CBFM monitoring and evaluating  system.

Activities:

– Check reports of forest status, forest resources, forest protection and development activities (from activities in step 3).

– Meeting on CBFM planning covering:

  • management objectives for each community forest.
  • forest protection and development activities: 1) a group to prevent human and cattle from destroying forest; 2) a group to prevent and fight fire; 3) a group working on sustainable livelihoods.

– Develop CBFM’s monitoring and evaluating plan and monitoring and evaluating form system.

Methods/tools:

– Group discussion.

Attached appendix:

– Appendix 16: Objectives, principles and contents of CBFM plan of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 17: CBFM plan of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

– Appendix 18: CBFM’s monitoring and evaluating plan form.

 

Step 7: CBFM monitoring and evaluating implementation

– Implement planned activities.

– 6-monthly meeting on evaluating CBFM result.

– Share CBFM results with stakeholders.

  1. APPENDIX

Step 2: Identify participating villages

Appendix 1: Guidance on ranking

 

 

Expected result List of villages participating in the model

 

Stationery A0 paper, marker pens, paper tape
Participants Members of CBFM model development team
Process Step 1: Members discuss and agree:

– Criteria for selecting villages to participate in the model.

– Importance of each criteria: average = 1, important = higher.

Step 2: Matrix for marking

– The first row: unified criteria and mark each criteria.

– The first column: Name of villages under consideration

Step 3: Mark each criterion based on 10 levels.

A village’s score = score * coefficient./factor

Step 4: Calculate total score and rank the villages in ascending order. The higher ranked villages are prioritised to participate in the model.

 

Scoring matrix:

Criteria 1         Criteria 2           Criteria 3

(1)*                    (1)*                       (2)*

Village 1

Village 2

Village 3

Total score

Ranking

Note: * Marking coefficient

Time, Venue      Half-day at commune people’s committee office or village cultural house.

 

 

Step 3: Community approach

Appendix 2: Guidance on village mapping

 

Expected result Complete CBFM status map covering: types of available forest; threats of CBFM; available resources supporting CBFM (rivers, lakes, canals; available construction, etc.)
Stationery A0 paper, pencils, erasers, scaling tape
Preparation Commune administrative map; land and forest land use plan; land, forest allocation plan and socio-economic development plan
Participants Members of the CBFM model development team (to act as facilitators)

Local representative (maximum six people)

Process Step 1: The facilitators explain the purpose of the map and the method for drawing the map.

Step 2: Locals are guided to draw the framework and name the map ( local drawing map to identify their forest areas on AO paper, marking west, east, north, and south.

Step 3: Locals are guided to draft the village map, following these steps: draw the main points (main roads, etc.); mark residential areas, forests, rivers, springs, canals and public construction in different colours; write notes to explain the map.

It is recommended that pencils are used for the outline and that this is drawn in pen once agreed. Highlighter pens should be used for the coloured areas.

Time, Venue 2pm at the village cultural house or at another place where it is easy to observe the activities.

 

Appendix 3: CBFM map of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

 

  Appendix 4: List of forestry items in Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

 

Fine wood

 

Medicinal plants NTFPs

 

Animals

 

–       Săng lẻ

 

  Appendix 5: Guidance on discussing the village history

Expected result Documented changes in the village and reasons for these changes.
Stationery A0 paper, marker pens,paper tape.
Participants Local representatives (6-8 people) with priority given to older residents as they have more knowledge of the village history
Process Step 1: The facilitators explain the purpose of the map and the method for drawing the village history development map.

Step 2: The faciiltators ask questions about the history of the village to prompt locals to remember and discuss forest protection and development changes of the last 20 years.

Step 3: Locals are guided to draft a map representing the forest protection and development changes over time. They also describe the features of each period and causes of those changes.

Time, venue 2 pm at the village cultural house

 

Appendix 6: History of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

 

Time 1990-1994 2004 2015
Features – Forests were seriously destroyed – Forests were protected – Illegally exploited forestry products
Causes – Poor protection and management (limited regulations)

– Forestry regulations had not been issued

– Locals were not allowed to engage in forest protection and development activities.

– Locals were not confident in protecting forests and the environment.

– Protection forests and production forests had not been defined.

– Deforestation due to Ban Ve hydro power.

– Deforestation due to milpa.

– Forests were allocated to households.

– Forests were protected by locals.

– Forestry regulations were implemented.

– Good forest protection and management.

– Many types of forests needed to be protected such as protections forests belonging to Tuong Duong, community forest, production forest.

– Tuong Duong FPMU had not signed the contract on forest allocation to groups of households. The households had not yet identified the area of forest that needed to be protected.

– It is necessary to had coordination between the village and Tuong Duong FPMU.

– It is necessary to have a strong support of Yen Na commune people’s committee in terms of forest protection and management.

– There was conflict in terms of protection forest area with Na Khom village.

 

Appendix 7: Guidance on developing Venn map

Expected result Defined agencies related to forest protection and development issue and their roles in terms of developing the CBFM model.
Stationery A0 paper, marker pens, coloured paper, scaling tape.
Participants Local representatives (6-8 people).
Process Step 1: Facilitators explain the purpose of the Venn map and the method to develop it.
Step 2: Locals make a list of stakeholders involved in local forest protection and development. The name of each stakeholder is written on a different coloured sheet of paper.

Step 3: A circle representing the community is drawn in the centre of a sheet of A0 paper. The sheets of coloured paper that name the stakeholders are placed in the circle with the position based on their relationship with the community in terms of forest protection and development activities. The closer to the centre the stakeholders are, the stronger their impact on the community.

Step 4: The role of stakeholders in CBFM model activities is discussed.

Step 5: Arrows representing the interaction between stakeholders and the community are drawn on the map. One-way arrows represent one-way relationship, two-way arrows represent mutual interaction.

Time, venue Half-day at commune cultural house.

 

Appendix 8: Venn map for Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province.

 

 

 

 

Appendix 9: Guidance on surveying the village.

 

Expected output Survey of different types of forest resources to prepare for CBFM planning.
Stationery Pens, notebooks, cameras.
Preparation Commune administrative map; Land and forest land use planning. plan
Participants CBFM group

Local representatives (2 people/team who have knowledge in local history and local natural resources)

Process

 

Step 1: Discuss survey line ( they discussed and selected the way to visit the forest areas)with locals. Ensure survey lines cover a range of local natural resources and socio-economics features.

Step 2: Divide into groups to each cover one area

Step 3: Discuss and agree the information that needs to be collected. This should include: information on forest resources: characteristics of the topography, land, animals and plants; the forest protection and development activities that are being implemented; the advantages, difficulties and solutions for forest protection and development activities.

Step 4: Implement survey based on identified lines.

Step 5: Collect  information related to natural forest resources.

Step 6: Share survey results among groups.

Time, venue ½ day

 

Step 5: Establish forest management board at village level, forest protection team and develop CBFM regulations.

Appendix 10: CBFM organisational diagram at village level

Appendix 11: The criteria for selecting members of the forest manage board at in Ban Ve village, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province

  • Good health.
  • Willingness to take on a high level of responsibility.
  • Good experience of the forest sector.
  • Good knowledge and management skills.
  • Good reporting skills.
  • Time for community work.
  • No breaches of law relating to forest protection and development.
  • No drunkenness.

Appendix 12: Functions and tasks of the forest management board in Ban Ve village, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province

  • Inform locals about forest protection and development law.
  • Monitor regulations and implementation of forest protection group.
  • Develop forest protection plan.
  • Monitor forest protection activities.
  • Contact and coordinate with Yen Na CPC and Tuong Duong Forest protection management board to implement forest protection activities.
  • Report to Yen Na CPC about the forest protection status.

Appendix 13: Functions and tasks of the forest protection group in Ban Ve village, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong District, Nghe An province

  • Coordinate with Ve village ( Ban Ve village) forest management board to develop a forest protection plan.
  • Develop forest patrol and protection plan; Local people makes transect monitoring /patrol plan
  • Report to Ve village forest management board on the results of the patrol;
  • Meet regarding implemention of forest protection activities.
  • Coordinate with Ve village forest manage board to implement forest protection activities.
  • Directly Implement the activities.
  • Coordinate with Ban Ve forest management board to create income for forest protection activities and share benefits from that income.
  • Coordinate with Tuong Duong forest manage board to implement the integrated activities on livelihood development and forest protection (For example: plant trees in clear forest land areas, raise goats and cattle in protection forests, etc.).
  • Mobilise locals to help prevent forest fire and illegal activities.
  • Allocate households with farms near to protected forest area to protect the forests.

Appendix 14: Regulations of prohibition acts and permission acts at Ve village, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district

Permitted acts Prohibited acts
–          Exploit NTFPs (medicinal plants, mushroom, etc.)

–          Collect branches from dry, dead or felled trees for firewood.

–          Exploit bamboo shoots.

–          Plant trees in clear forest land areas.

–          Raise goats and cattle in protection forest.

–          Grow vegetables, corn, chilli, etc. in buffer zones.

 

–          Illegal logging or exploitation of forests.

–          Make fire in forests in dry seasons.

–          Use machines to cut trees in forest areas.

–          Cut down trees for cultivation.

–          Hunt endangered animals.

–          Mine for gold in forest areas.

–          Use electro-fishing or use high voltage for fishing.

–          Smoke in forest areas in dry season.

–          Exploit bees in dry seasons with fire.

Appendix 15: Convention on community forest management, protection and development of Ve village people, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district

SOCIAL REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM

Freedom – Independence – Happiness

CONVENTION

on community forest management, protection and development of Ve village people, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district

(Issued based on Decision No. …/20../QD – UBND date….month….year 20…of Yen Na CPC)

   Base on laws and regulations: Law on Forest Protection and Development 2004 (XI Congress, 6th session on 3rd December 2004).

  • Decree no.23/2006/ND – CP on 3rd March 2006 of the government on implementing the Law on Forest Protection and Development.
  • Decision no.186/2000/QD – TTg on 14th August 2006 of the prime minister on issuing Forest Management Convention.
  • Household meeting at Ve village, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district.

 

Chapter 1: General regulations

Article 1: The forest protected and managed by Ve village community includes forest areas  allocated and contracted to Ve village households and community forests.

Article 2: This regulation applies for Ve communities, Yen Na commune and others relating to forest area managed by Ve village as in article 1.

 

Chapter II: DETAILED REGULATIONS

Article 3: Rights and obligations of locals

  1. Rights of locals
  2. Develop forest management plan and forest protection and development convention and carry out.
  3. Select and dismiss members for the community forest protection and management board;
  4. Allowed to exploit forestry resources such as: medicinal plants, mushrooms, forestry honey, bamboo sprout, etc.
  5. Allowed to exploit firewood from dead trees.
  6. Allowed to re-plant forests on fallow land.
  7. Allowed to breed buffaloes, cows and goats in the forests with maximum of five animals per household.
  8. Allowed to plant vegetables in buffer areas.
  9. Allowed to use up ecotourism’s benefit. Allow to set up eco-tourism and get benefits form this
  10. Obligations of the community in terms of forest protection and development
  11. Use forests and forest land effectively, based on approved regulations.
  12. Take responsibility for monitoring assigned forest resources in terms of disasters and disease affecting the forests.
  13. Monitor forests four times per month in the dry seasons and three times per month in the rainy seasons.
  14. Develop CBFM fund.
  15. Return the forests if asked by the government.
  16. Take responsibility to mutually support members in terms of protecting and exploiting forest resources and NTFPs .
  17. Conduct all exploitation activities without negatively effecting the forests.

 Article 4: Operating structure of CBFM management board

  1. Five people voted for by the locals.
  2. Take responsibility for managing and protecting the forests and receives payment from the government for the project and others forestry resources.
  3. Directly manage the forest protection and development fund.
  4. Assign staff to patrol the forests.
  5. Take responsibility for monitoring exploiters in the forests and near the forests and coordinate with them to protect the forests.
  6. If members of the protection group do not complete assigned tasks or break the rules, they do not receive payment and are sacked.

Article 5. Functions, missions and rights of CBFM’s management board

  1. Develop plan and stimulate communication to protect and develop forests.
  2. Develop forest protection and development plan with the participation of locals.
  3. Develop and manage the forest protection and development fund; ensure forestry resources are exploited reasonably and effectively.
  4. Coordinate with local government to hold meetings on forest protection and management planning.
  5. Act as a link between the village management board, the commune people’s committee and Tuong Duong protection forest management board in terms of forest protection and management.
  6. Solve conflicts among locals during exploitation activities.
  7. Coordinate with other villages in the commune to protect forests effectively.

Article 6: Forbidden activities

  1. Deforestation.
  2. Damaging forest protection constructions such as: targets, watch tower, etc.
  3. Fires in forests in dry seasons.
  4. Use of timber saw without competent agency’s agreement.
  5. Cutting down trees for illegal forest farm development f. Hunting endangered animals (based on forbidden list)
  6. Setting fires in the forests.
  7. Gold exploitation in the forests.
  8. Don’t allow to use electric tools to fishing
  9. Smoking in the forests.
  10. Taking honey by using fire in dry seasons.
  11. Other activities which damage the forests and forest resources.

Article 7. Regulations on tackling infringements relating to forest protection and development

  1. Protection group takes responsibility for making minutes for illegal activities confiscating infringed items on behalf of the local police station and commune people’s committee. Forestry station considers the extent of the infringement to determine appropriate punishment policy or competent agencies will conduct a criminal prosecution. Infringers will be informed by local speakers
  2. Financial punishment and forced to re-plant forests.

Article 8. purposes, fund raising of CBFM fund development.

The purpose of developing the fund is to protect and develop community forest resources.

  1. The amount of money for security staff: …VND/day for each person.
  2. The amount of money for promotion, forest protection law education.
  3. The amount of money for patrols.
  4. Fund resource development, fund resource mechanism: based on PFES guidance.

III. Implementation

Article 9: This convention is valid from the day it is signed and has been approved by locals, management board and security group and locals have committed to following all the convention’s contents.

 

Recipient                                                               Representative of

– Villages in the commune                   Yen Na commune people’s committee

– Forest management board                              Head of the commune

– Security group

– Record

 

Step 6: CBFM planning

Appendix 16: Objectives, principles and plan for CBFM of Ban Ve , Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong street, Nghe An province

Objective:

To create a basis upon which Ban Ve community can actively implement forest management activities in the forest areas and forest land for which forest protection contracts have been signed with Tuong Duong’s protection forest management board.

 

Rules of planning:

  • Align with contents of the contracts signed with Tuong Duong protection forest’s management board.
  • Fit with local economy and society status and ability of Ban Ve commune.
  • Meet the demands of the community and households in terms of benefits based on forest resources.
  • Ensure attendance of community members during plan development and implementation process with the support of the protection forest management board.
  • Make CBFM plan at village level which is carried out annually.

 

Planning basis:

  • Regulations relating to forest protection.
  • Forest protection and development options.
  • Results of allocating forest protection to households or household groups, forest area status and the results of implementing CBFM in the previous year.
  • Management ability, budget and customs of the community in community forest management.

 

Plan contents:

The contents of the forest protection plan include three main activities:

1) Activities to prevent human and cattle from damaging forests:

  • Security group to prevent forest damaging activities.
  • Signs to warn and prevent deforestation.
  • Spread information and educate on forest protection and development in the community.

2) Activities to prevent and fight fire.

  • Develop fire warning signs, fire watch towers, etc.
  • Patrol groups to prevent and fight fire in dry seasons.
  • Community education on forest prevention( they have a plan on this and they make line to prevent fire etc) and fighting fire.
  • Develop and share information with locals on forest prevention and fighting fire regulations.

3) Activities to develop sustainable livelihoods.

  • Planting forests.

 

Appendix 17: CBFM plan of Ban Ve, Yen Na commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An province (group on enhancing awareness on forest preventing and fire fighting activities)

 

Contents Responsible agencies Time Budget( some activities they do themselves, some supported by state budget)
Banners: put in villages, public places Forest protection group Mar-Apr-May (Chinese calendar) – Self-cut letters

– Fonts are available in the villages

Signs (6 items, 70cm wide by 1m long) 36 households belonging to forest protection group Nov-Dec (Chinese calendar)  
Share through local meetings – Village management board

– Forest protection board

1 time/quarter Coordinate in meetings
Competitions/experience sharing on forest protection – Commune/district people’s committee.

– Tuong Duong protection forest management board.

1 time/year – Government budget

– Other resource

 

Appendix 18: CBFM monitoring, evaluating plan’s form

Activities Estimated output coefficient Data collecting method Time and frequency of data collection In charge of data collection Resources
           

 

 

References:

 

Vietnamese references:

– Viet Nam forestry development strategy, 2006 – 2020.

Duong Viet Tinh & Tran Huu Nghi, Community forestry in the centre of Viet Nam, Agricultural publisher.

– Land law 2003 and amended land law 2013.

– Forest protection and development law 2004.

– Decree No.181/2004/ND-CP of the Government on implementing land law.

– Decree No.23/2006/ND-CP of the Government on implementing Forest protection and development law.

– Circular No.70/2007/TT-BNN of Ministry of Agricultural and Rural development on guidance on develop and implement convention of forest protection and development in community.

– Data belonging to Viet Nam Forests and Deltas Program sponsored by USAID, Winrock, SNV and SRD.

English references:

Bao Huy,  2009 ‘Study on state of the art of community forestry in Vietnam. ‘, Hamburg: GFA Consulting Group.

By Le Thu Hang and Nguyen Viet Nghi

 

 

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